My pains and its causes

Back pain can be manifested in many different ways. Your physician will therefore establish whether your pain is locally restricted or where the pain radiates out to. The clinician will also establish whether you are experiencing additional symptoms which may be arising in connection with a disease of the spinal column. These may involve symptoms ranging from sensory disturbances to numbness in the arms and legs, or even symptoms of paralysis.

Muscular related backpain

Some causes of back pain which are particularly localized and radiate into the torso, nape of the neck or buttocks originate from muscles and tendons. Stresses can arise as a result of overuse, inappropriate use or even lack of movement which are in turn capable of leading to shortening and inflammatory change in muscles and tendons. 

Back disorders related to aging, and wear and tear

Disorders related to wear and tear rank among the most frequently occurring diseases of the spinal column. They will therefore be frequently responsible for your pain which may occur in your back and in arms and legs. As people get older, the structures in the vertebral column change. The intervertebral disks play an important role here. They are made up of an outer fibrous ring and an inner gel-like center. As part of the aging process, and due to wear and tear, the elasticity of the material is reduced and the cartilaginous outer ring becomes brittle. If the stress on the disk is suddenly increased, the inner nucleus of the intervertebral disk can be pressed outward and exert pressure on the nerve structures.

When this happens we refer to a disk herniation. A great deal of pain is typically experienced in the limbs (arms in the case of the -> cervical spine, legs in the case of the -> lumbar spine) when a herniated disk occurs because the compressed nerves run from the spine to these extremities. If the pressure exerted on the nerve structures becomes too great, this can even lead to symptoms ranging from sensory disturbances to paralysis.

 

However, the changes to disks related to wear and tear, and aging can also impact on the stability of the spinal column. The increased movement of the individual vertebral segments results in an increased load on the bony parts which causes them to grow and become deformed (spondylosis, spondylarthrosis, or degenerative scoliosis). This can in turn lead to constrictions of the spinal canal known as spinal canal stenosis. Constriction of the supply blood vessels is generally also associated with the condition and this can result in a range of different complaints that develop over time. Symptoms may develop to a greater or lesser degree and can range from back pain, through pain in the legs or arms, muscle tension, to disturbances of the bladder or rectum (incontinence), and/or restrictions of sexual function.

However, the instabilities can lead to slipped vertebras (spondylolisthesis) in which vertebras slide together. Back pain and possibly similar symptoms to spinal canal stenosis may be generated in this condition.

Back pain is also typical for facet-joint or iliosacral-joint syndrome. This clinical picture arises as a result of wear and tear, and aging in the spinal column. The small vertebral joints (facet and iliosacral joints) are subject to greater stresses due to instabilities. This can cause arthroses as in the knee and hip, and inflammatory processes also lead to pain here.

Apart from the medical conditions and their causes already described, there are naturally other diseases of the spinal column that generate pain. These include tumors and congenital or genetic malformations.